India’s trade relation with many other countries of the world and most of this trade is through sea and airplanes. Apart from this, some trade is done through the land with countries connected with the Indian border. Most goods are imported and exported from India by sea route.
There are 13 major seaports and 200 minor seaports in India. All major ports are controlled by the central government, while the minor ports are controlled by the state government. Let us talk about India’s water transport and all the Major Ports In India in detail:
What are the two types of water transport?
Water transport takes place in two ways.
(I) Internal or inland water transport
(II) Shipping transport (Oceanic)
Currently, there are 14500 km long navigable waterways in the country, which includes rivers, canals, lakes, and rivers. There are 4300 km long navigable canals in the country.
In 1986, the Inland Waterways Authority of India was established, which got the status of a corporation after one year. The headquarters of the Inland Waterways Authority of India has it’s in Noida.
Uttar Pradesh has the longest internal waterway.
The 6 Inland National Waterways of India
National Waterway – 1 was declared as National Waterway on 27 October 1986. It is the longest waterway in India. Its total length between Allahabad to Haldia is 1620 km.
National Waterway – 2 was declared a national waterway on 1 September 1988. It stretches 891 km from the Saadia to Dhubri in Assam to the Brahmaputra River.
National Waterway – 3 is located at Kollam to Kottapuram in Kerala. It is the first waterway in India to have 24 hours of navigable access to the entire section. It is 205 km long.
National Waterway – 4 Wazirabad Vijayawada Bhadrachalam – Rajyamudri is 1095 km between Kakinada-Puducherry. It is the second-longest national waterway in India.
National Waterway – 5 The East Coast Canal stretch alongside Brahmani and Mahanadi delta stream framework is characterized as NW-5. It incorporates the trench stretch among Geonkhali and Charbatia (217 km), part of Matai River among Charbatia and Dhamra (40 km), part of Brahmani, Kharsua, and Dhamra stream framework among Talcher and Dhamra (265 km), and Mahanadi delta waterway framework among Mangalgadi and Paradeep (101 km). The complete length of NW-5 is 623 km.
National Waterway – 6 The National Water Port Institute is in Goa. Currently, six national waterways of India are operational.
13 Major Ports In India
|All Major Sea Ports of India|
|Kandla Port (new name DeenDayal Port)||Gujarat|
|Chennai Port Trust||Tamil Nadu|
|Mumbai Port Trust||Maharashtra|
|Vishakhapatnam Port Trust||Andhra Pradesh|
|Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust||Maharashtra|
|Kolkata-Haldia Port||West Bengal|
|Paradip Port Trust||Odisha|
|New Mangalore Port||Karnataka|
|V.O. Chidambaranar Port Trust||Tamil Nadu|
|Kamarajar Port Limited||Tamil Nadu|
|Kochi Port (Cochin)||Kerala|
|Mormugao Port Trust||Goa|
|Deendayal Port Trust||Gujarat|
|Bhava Sheva port||Maharashtra|
|Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Trust||West Bengal|
More about Seaports Of India
- Bankigham Canal is the longest navigable canal in India. It is 640 km long from Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram in Tamil Nadu.
- The Nhava Sheva / New Mumbai port of Mumbai is a fully mechanized port. It is the largest artificial, modern, and busiest port in India.
- New Mangalore port is known for iron ore exports.
- The Chennai port is an artificial port, deepened for large vessels.
- Cast iron-manganese from Paradip Cuttack (Odisha) port is exported to Japan. It is the main port of export.
- The Anaur port located on the Tamil Nadu coast is the largest computerized port in India. With effect from 21 February 2014, it has been renamed as Kamaraj Port Limited.
- The Central Inland Water Transport Corporation is headquartered in Kolkata.
- National Inland Shipping Institute was established in Patna in 2004.
- The modern development of ship queen transport in India has considered with the founding of the British India Steam Navigation Company established in 1854.
- India has the largest fleet of commercial ships in developing countries.
- India ranks first in the list of ship-breaking countries.
- Iron ore is exported to Iran from Marmugao Port (Goa).
- The Tuticorin port of Tamil Nadu is called the fishery port.
- Dahej port located in Gujarat is called Rasayana port.
- In the Sethusamudram project, it is proposed to connect two rivers between India and Sri Lanka to the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
The Sagarmala project to develop the ports and internal water transport system located in the coastal states of India was announced by Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 2004 and it was given in-principle approval in 2015. The bridge construction program for safe travel on national highways was started in 2016 as Setu Bharatam Project. Under this, there are plans to build bridges to prevent accidents on railway crossings.
Main components to be focused under the Sagarmala project:
1.Development of New Mega Ports
2. Redevelopment of Existing Ports
3. Development of Coastal Economic Zones (CEZs) & Coastal Economic Units (CEUs).
4. Enhance Port Connectivity by Rail & Road
5. Development of Multi-Modal logistics Parks
6. Development of Inland Waterways
7. Development of Port-Linked Industrial Clusters
8. Increase Merchandise Exports up to 100 Billion &
9. Promote Coastal Tourism
A total of 577 projects will be developed under the Sagarmala program, for which about 10,29,000 crores INR will be spent in this project.